Global studies and the main stages of it's development
Globalistics began to take shape as an independent scientific direction in the late 60s of the XX century. At that time, the ecological situation in many industrialized countries sharply worsened, which was reflected in the complexity and dynamism of the modern era.
Globalistics as a new scientific direction has been rapidly evolving. This fact can be characterized by the following aspects:
1. The majority of scientific works is based on the descriptive approach to global issues;
2. A significant number of studies is concentrated on selected issues, although the number of integrated studies embracing the entire sphere of global problems has increased significantly;
3. Global issues are usually analysed on the basis of the current situation in the world without a comprehensive theoretical understanding of the past and possible trends of development in the future;
4. There is no common understanding of the genesis, typology and dynamics of global problems.
Stages of Globalistics formation
Global problems; space exploration and protection of the environment. At this stage, they do not coexist as an integrated system.
Form; methodological and scientific-theoretical studies of these problems.
Attempts of the interdisciplinary researches; in anticipation of the Stockholm conference on the environmental protection there were held numerous symposiums, where could be found various materials and reports.
Marked by an event: the emergence of studies concerning the state and development prospects of world politics and world economic relations in the conditions of deepening contradictions.
Distinctive traits; clarification of the study object and its borders in the form of lists and hierarchical structures of global problems. As well as the formation of the most important theoretical directions, they were also formulated by scientists from different countries.
At this stage, the following directions were formulated;
Protective direction (The direction was based on preserving the leading trends of the dominant model of development, preference for military business, conservative and right-wing forces).
Moderately realistic direction (The direction was based on the ideology of global solidarity. It expresses the aspiration of political parties and movements for the benefit of the liberal and reformist wing).
Radically-critical direction (This direction represented deep social pessimism about the possibilities of the modern development model).
The socialist direction (This direction included a wide range of views, starting from social-democratic ones to the Marxist persuasion. The direction linked the prospects for solving global problems with the strengthening of the socialist orientation of development.)
Distinctive traits; reduction of attention to theoretical problems of globalistics, attempts to build practical activities on the basis of the principle: "think globally, act locally." In the USSR was declared a new doctrine “New political thinking” in the second half of the 1980s. Globalistics gets a new concept - " The planetary political thinking".
The reasons of its appearing;
1. The realization that humanity will exist in a crisis for a long time = > the only one real task is to reduce the level of its severity.
2. The concept of New political thinking is related to political course in the USSR from 1980s to early 1990s
3. In the historical context, it turned out to be the only one option for political understanding of global interdependencies. Its content was of universal importance.
4. The concept of the planetary political thinking emerged at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s.
Distinctive traits: The geopolitical structure of the world radically changed. Global security issues became pressing.
Events: The UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). At the conference was adopted the concept of sustainable development.
The emergence of science and the main stages of its development
There are two approaches to understanding science
1) The wide approach (the collective approach): Science is the entire sphere of human activity. Its main function is to develop and theoretically systematize the objective knowledge about reality.
2) The narrow approach: Science is a strictly ordered system of knowledge about different types of objects, societies and ways of thinking.
Science passed through a number of stages: the prescientific period, Antiquity, The middle Ages, the Renaissance and Modern times, when science finally stood out from philosophy as an independent form of social consciousness and entered into close relations with technology, thus giving rise to the scientific and technological progress.
1. The prescientific period (4000-600 BC) – here came up accumulation of theoretical
knowledge, which contributed to the emergence of writing, the birth of mathematics, chronometry, the technology crafts and medical practice. 4 thousand BC- in southern Mesopotamia and Egypt appeared cuneiform characters and hieroglyph respectively. Approx. 3 t. l. n. – appeared Sumerian arithmetic (decimal and hexadecimal scales of notation), Egypt-appeared the basics of geometry, China- appeared the practice of acupuncture and the observation of the Eclipse of the Sun. Two thousand. BC-appeared the beginnings of gynecology and veterinary medicine, later-the description of diseases. In Egypt- appeared Solar clock. 8th century BC Dora – in Babylon appeared prediction of solar eclipse. The moon and the Sun in India gained momentum in Indian medicine.
2. The Ancient stage (6th century BC – 4th century AD) - the emergence of rational foundations
of thinking, the emergence of philosophy, logic, geometry. Scientific knowledge became universal and more encyclopedic. The increment of knowledge in various fields: Thales-theorems of geometry, Anaximander-geographical map. Eratosthenes of Cyrene-a way of finding Prime numbers and calculating the circumference of the earth. The atomistic doctrine of Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus. Aristotle-the founder of formal logic and ethics. Development of philosophy-Academy of Plato and Lycaea.
3. The Middle ages (4-14 centuries) progress in the Arab world, 9th century. - Jabir Ibn
Hayyan’s treatise on chemistry, al-Khorezmi creates algebra, al-Battani uses trigonometry in astrology, Abu al-Razi-the Creator of the medical encyclopedia in 20 volumes. Opening of universities in the East. The first universities in Europe: in the 11th century in Parma (1065) and Bologna (1119) (Italy). In the 13th century, Cambridge (1209) and Oxford (1214) in England were founded, as well as the University of Paris (1215), which from the mid-17th century would become known as the Sorbonne. In the 13th century, the number of students at the University of Bologna reached 10,000, and by the end of the 15th century there were 70 universities in Europe. In Russia, the first University appeared only in 1725. However, all the students and teachers of the Russian Academic University were foreigners.
4. The Renaissance (late 14th-early 16th century) - opening of new universities and
distribution of humanism. Copernicus-the idea of heliocentrism, Vesalius-essay "On the fabric of the human body in seven books", Pare-Treaties on Surgery. A powerful impetus to the development of humanitarian and natural science knowledge led to the rapid formation of many specific Sciences as independent disciplines. Separated from philosophy, they began to split in the process of differentiation of scientific knowledge.
5. The new time (17-18 centuries) - science develops as an independent field of
knowledge, a special form of worldview-Newton's discovery of the laws of classical mechanics.
6. Nowadays, science has become a global phenomenon: universities around the world,
congresses, etc. The scientific and technological progress is a worldwide phenomenon.